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Last updated Feb 25, 2023

Carbohydrates are a group of organic compounds that serve as a major source of energy for the body. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a ratio of 1:2:1. Hence, they can be recognized by their basic chemical formula, i.e. $CH_2O$.


Its Monomer is Monosaccharides, which can usually be identified. These monomers will form long chains to create polymers (glycogen/starch). These monomers are joined by the glycosidic bond. 1

# Use Cases

Carbohydrates have numerous important functions in living organisms, including:

  1. Energy production: Carbohydrates are the primary source of energy for the body. When consumed, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is used by cells to produce ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the primary energy currency of the cell.
  2. Energy storage: Excess glucose is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, which can be broken down into glucose when the body needs energy.
  3. Structural support: Carbohydrates play a key role in providing structural support to cells and tissues. For example, cellulose, a type of polysaccharide found in plant cell walls, provides rigidity and strength to the cell.
  4. Cell signaling: Some carbohydrates play a role in cell signaling and communication.
  5. Lubrication: Carbohydrates can act as lubricants and help reduce friction between tissues.
  6. Immunological functions: Carbohydrates can be involved in immune system recognition and response.

Overall, carbohydrates play a wide range of critical roles in living organisms and are essential for proper bodily function. 2

# References